Toxic Waste From the Family Line – Hawai’ian Islands


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The consequences of generational sin pours like toxic waste into our lives.

“Toxic Waste from the Family Line” is a series of articles based on historical research.

These resources work in conjunction with our generational prayer model and are useful as references while you ask God to reveal generational issues in your life.


The following is taken from:

Shoal of Time – Gavan Daws

To Steal a Kingdom – Probing Hawaiian History– Michael Dougherty

Hawaiian Mythology –Martha Beckwith

Note: Hawaii could have been founded by a single voyage; from the Marquesas in about 350 AD

Event

Generational Issue

 

Captain James Cook visited the islands in 1778 naming them the Sandwich Islands after the Earl of Sandwich. On his return in 1779 he was killed by the natives after a dispute at Kealakekua Bay. At this time, the population of possibly one million operated a highly stratified society with strictly maintained castes, and the islands seem to have been self-sustaining.

 

Anger

Disputes

 

During the late 1700’s, Hawaii was in the process of moving from regional monarchies – usually one per island, who operated in a pyramid system with a chief minister and a high priest – to a consolidated monarchy that spanned all the islands. The transition under Kamehameha the Great, from a feudal society into an independent constitutional monarchy, was accomplished by a series of bloody battles to overcome other regional monarchs who opposed him, especially on Maui and Oahu. Kamehameha I’s conquest was aided by European advisers and weapons.

 

Violence

Control

War

 

The monarchy was hereditary, by divine right and the right of birth, with the support of the religion and the priesthood (kâhuna). All land belonged to the monarch. The nobility (ali’i) received grants of land from the King. The commoners (maka’âinana) had certain understood rights to use the land, and obligations to provide support to the king and nobility.

 

Religious spirit

Control

Subjection of poor

 

Bearing the brunt of sustaining the monarchy were the commoners (makaainana) who formed the majority of the king’s subjects, but who had few rights. Below them were the despised kauwa, thought to be slaves without rights.

 

Servitude

Slavery

Subjugation

 

Society was strictly ordered by the Kapu System, which cemented this ancient culture. The word, known in English as “taboo”, meant sacred or prohibited, and violators were swiftly put to death by strangulation or clubbing.  Should a commoner’s shadow fall across the person of a high chief, he was obligated to swiftly kneel or lie down in the presence of such a sacred person.  Birth, death, faulty behavior, the building of a canoe, and many other activities were regulated by the kapu system, which permeated all aspects of ancient Hawaiian life.

 

Murder

Superstition

 

The Hawaiian temples (heiau) contained images which symbolized the gods.  The four major gods were known as Ku, Kanaloa, Lono and Kane, who represented the universal forces.  Commoners performed their own simple ceremonies to family or personal gods (aumakua) while the complicated religious life of the ali’i required the services of a kahuna in large temple complexes.  In some temples, human sacrifices took place.

 

Idolatry

Human sacrifice

False worship

 

The ideal royal marriage in Hawaii was one where the high chief’s son married his full or half sister, the daughter of his father.

 

incest
 

Hawaiian society encouraged spontaneous, casual sexual coupling as a prerequisite to permanent unions. They did not look down of homosexuality.,

 

sexual sins
 

In the eyes of Hawaiian gods the woman was not on a par with men. Woman were never allowed to eat with men and were not allowed to partake of coconuts, bananas or roasted pig.

 

Subjugation of woman
 

Human sacrifices were offered on special occasions.

 

Human sacrifice
 

King Kamehameha had 22 wives.

 

Polygamy
 

Kamehameha I’s death in 1819 brought great changes to the island. Once Hawaii’s powerful ruler, he enforced taboos and the worship of heathen gods. Head of the Maui nobility, Kaahumanu exercised sovereignty over many of the chiefs of the islands. Kamehameha had instructed his son, Liholiho, to reinforce the idolatry and tabus of Hawaii. However, upon his father’s death, Liholiho chose to abolish all taboos and religious laws, in order to promote life free from restraints. The worship of idols was forbidden, but the personal beliefs of the Hawaiians and their superstitious fear of the volcano, the spirits of the dead, the bones of their monarchy, and their kini of gods, that is, 40,000 deities to whom they were fruitlessly appealing, were expected to be slowly extinguished. Far removed from Liholiho’s mind was any conception of God’s perfect plan for Hawaii, but his actions were the answers to Opukahaia’s fervent prayers for the salvation of his people! Liholiho was but preparing the way for Christianity to be introduced, embraced and readily accepted by the islanders, whose eyes were subsequently opened to the truth of the gospel message. This was due in no small part to the fervent prayers of a kahuna, Henry Opukahaia, who had fled Hawaii in 1810, aged 16.

 

 Idolatry
 

The first contact of the whites with the Hawaiians in Kauai ended with a Hawaiian being murderd by one of the sailors on Captain Cook’s ship. The Hawaiians believed this was war

 

Murder
 

Following this event, promiscuous living among the men of the ship and the people of the land with the result that the vile diseases of the white people were quickly scattered over all the islands…spreading sin and death all over the islands.

 

Death, destruction, devourer, promiscuity,

The Monarchy Years 1810 – 1893

Event

Generational Issue

 

American missionaries arriving in 1820 brought with them not only their religion, but their political and social views, creating a seismic shift in the Hawaiians’ thinking. 62 years after the first European contact, Kamehameha III promulgated the first Hawaiian Constitution, with further constitutions in 1852, 1864 and 1887. The latter, known as the Bayonet Constitution, provided for electing the House of Nobles, with a codicil requiring a noble to hold significant assets in order to vote. It also ended the king’s right to veto Constitutional amendments.

 

Control

Deception

Anger

Regret

 Very few commoners benefited from the Land Acts. Much of what the King, Government and the nobility received was then sold or transferred to European and American planters.

Loss of inheritance and blessing on ancestral land

Plunder

Greed

Violation

Betrayal

 

During the early 1800’s the harvesting of sandalwood resulted in the enslavement of the Hawaiian people. They were treated like cattle. Men and woman actually became deformed due to the tremendous weight of the logs on their backs. The forced laborers in the sandalwood forests had no time to farm so that food grew scarce and famine came.

More than 65,000 Hawaiians lost their lives as a result of sandalwood trading. Add to that 70,000 cholera deaths, 135,000 died during the first 45 years of exposure to the Europeans.

Pain

Suffering

Slavery

Famine

Death

 

The Europeans also initiated the Hawaiians into the use of alcohol and tobacco which “resulted in a toboggan slide down the slopes of depopulation.,

 

Death

Loss of inheritance

On 8th April, 1852, during the reign King Kamehameha III, (Kauikeaouli) the son of Kamehameha the Great, the Lodge le Progres de l’Oceanie No. 124 Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (A.A.S.R.) was constituted under the Supreme Council of France. On 5th May, the Hawaiian Lodge No. 21 Free and Accepted Masons was chartered. These two Lodges became the foundation of the Craft in Hawaii and both are presently on the register of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Hawaii. The association between Freemasonry and the Hawaiian Monarchy started on 27th February 1853, when Prince Lot was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason in Hawaiian Lodge No. 21, becoming the first Native Hawaiian to be a Freemason. He later became Kamehameha V, ruler of Hawaii.

He was followed into the fraternity by:

  • Prince Alexander Liholiho, his younger brother, who later became Kamehameha IV, and was Master of Lodge le Progres de l’Oceanie in 1859, 1861 and 1862.
  • John Owen Dominis, the Prince Consort of Lydia Kamakeaha, older sister of King David Kalakaua, and later known as Queen Lili’uokalani. Dominis was the Master of Lodge le Progres de l’Oceanie in 1863, 1864 and 1868.
  • Dominis’s brother-in-law, Archibald Scott Cleghorn, later Governor of the Island of Oahu, and husband of Princess Miriam Kapili Likelike, the younger sister of King Kalakaua. Cleghorn was raised in Hawaiian Lodge in 1873.
  • Prince William Pitt Kalahoolewa Leleiohoku, younger brother of King David Kalakaua who was raised in Hawaiian Lodge in 1874.
  • David Kalakaua who was elected Master of Lodge le Progres de l’Oceanie for 1876, about a year and a-half after being elected King of Hawaii in 1874. He was one of the most active members of the Craft in the Island Kingdom.

King David Kalakaua invited his brethren of the Lodge le Progres de l’Oceanie No.124, and Hawaiian Lodge No.21 to lay the foundation stone of ‘Iolani Palace on 31st December, 1879. At the ceremony, His Majesty descended from the dais and gave the cornerstone three sharp raps with a gavel, to which his brethren responded with Grand Public Honors. The King then donated the ceremonial silver working tools to his Lodge, le Progres de l’Oceanie. They were used again on 11th November 1994 to lay the Cornerstone of the Memorial Building of the Hawaii State Veteran’s Cemetery at Kaneohe, on the Island of Oahu.

Before the palace was completed, the kind held a ‘Grand Masonic Banquet’ for about 120 of his brethren on 27th December 1882. Following a toast to the Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge of France, the Band struck up a rousing rendition of La Marseillaise. In a following toast to the Grand Lodge of California, the Band played The Star Spangled Banner. Shortly before midnight the last toast of the evening was concluded in part with the following:

“…It is that portion of the charge wherein the novitiate is taught that Freemasonry is so esteemed as an honorable order that even monarchs have, at times, exchanged the scepter for the trowel to join in our mysteries and aid in our labors. To this fact is due in no small degree the prosperity in Hawaii of an order that bears upon its active roles the name of one whom we greet tonight as Sovereign, as host, and as brother.”

The brethren then joined hands and sang “Auld Lang Syne.” It was the first and the last Masonic function to be held strictly for the Craft at ‘Iolani Palace.

King David Kalakaua was proud of his status as a 32nd Degree Mason.

The king died on 20th January 1891, seven days after he had been made a Noble of Islam Temple of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (33rd Degree) in San Francisco. The Masons stood guard when Kalakaua lay in state after his death.

On 15th November 2003, using funds raised by local masons, at Sotheby’s, New York, the ‘Friends’ of ‘Iolani Palace successfully bid on a Knights Templar Masonic sword made for King David Kalakaua.

His sister, Princess Lydia Kamaka’ea (Mrs John Dominis) ascended the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 29, 1891 as Queen Lili’uokalani. Seven months later, her husband John O. Dominis died. He was one of Freemasonry’s most active and dedicated members.

Queen Lili’uokalani evidently believed that the Masonic Orders would assist her, for of her visit to Washington in 1897 she writes:

‘One object of my visit to Washington was to ask a favor of the Masonic fraternity; so, while at the Shoreham, I sent a letter to Mr. Frederic Webber, Secretary of the Supreme Council, thirty-third degree, asking him to call at my apartments, a request with which he very promptly complied. He remembered me perfectly from our meeting in 1887, when he had been one of the thirteen Masons of high degree to call on the party of Queen Kapiolani; of that committee of the Supreme Council, General Albert Pike, now gone to the great majority, was the head. Besides this, Mr. Webber was, during the lifetime of Governor Dominis, in correspondence with my husband on matters connected with the order.

I showed Mr. Webber my jewel of the Mystic Shrine, which I prize very highly, and asked if I might be permitted to wear my husband’s Masonic jewels; to which he replied in the affirmative, and then added he would like also to present me with a medal which was ornamented on one side with certain emblems of the thirty-third degree of Masonry, and on the other with a bas-relief likeness of General Pike. To thus receive permission to use the decorations or insignia of Masonry belonging to my husband, and further to be presented with a likeness of the head of the fraternity, and a valued correspondent of Governor Dominis, was certainly a happy welcome from the brotherhood my husband loved.’

 Freemasonry
 

Opposing Queen Lili`uokalani’s plans to restore power to the Hawaiian people and the right of the Monarch to veto Constitutional amendments, foreign and commercial interests aided by the American Minister to Hawai`i deposed her on 17th January 1893. Two years later, those loyal to the queen staged an open but unsuccessful counter-revolution to restore her to the throne, which resulted in the arrest and forced abdication of the queen. After enduring a humiliating public trial in her former Throne Room, the queen was imprisoned for nine months in an upstairs bedroom of the Palace.

 

Deception

Stealing of inheritance

Control

Injustice

Other Migrations

Event

Generational Issue

 

The English, under Captain James Cook, and then Americans came as explorers, adventurers, businessmen and missionaries. Those of European ancestry were known as haole, which means outsiders or non-Hawaiians, but the term soon came to refer strictly to persons of European ancestry, a practice, sometimes derogatory, which continues to this day.

 

Prejudice

Racism

Slander

 

Commercial sugar cane production began in 1835, the crop gaining economic importance. As the native population were depleted by disease, and disliked the hard life of a plantation worker, between 1852 and 1856 several thousand Cantonese were brought to Hawaii as indentured labor.

 

Infirmity

Pain

Misery

Slavery

 

Other plantation laborers were recruited from the Far East and Europe, including a large contingent of Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores.

 

Control

Poverty

 

The first large group of plantation workers from Korea arrived in 1903, many of whom married ‘Picture Brides’, helping to establish the Korean population in Hawaii.

 

Loss of inheritance from Korea
 

However, the largest group of plantation workers came from the Philippines, 120,000 males arriving between 1907 and 1931. Other workers were brought from Puerto Rico, and these people intermarried with the Filipinos, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Samoans.

 

Loss of inheritance from Philippines and other countries
 

Up to the 1890s, the Kingdom of Hawai‘i was independent and had been recognized by the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany, including the exchange of ambassadors. This did not spare the Kingdom from threats to its sovereignty, the most serious of which was on 10th February, 1843. Under the command of Lord George Paulet, Royal Navy warship H.M.S. Carysfort entered Honululu Harbour and captured the Honolulu fort, effectively gaining control of the town. Under the guns of the frigate, King Kamehameha III surrendered to Paulet’s demand of abdication and ceding of the islands to the British Crown, but then lodged a formal protest with the British Government and Paulet’s superior, Admiral Richard Thomas, who repudiated his subordiante’s actions. In his restoration speech on 31st July, 1843 Kamehameha declared that “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina i ka pono” (The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness), the motto adopted by the future State of Hawai‘i.

 

Violation

Betrayal

 

The independence of the islands was constantly threatened by European nations eager to add Hawaii to their empires, while sugar planters and American businessmen began to seek the advantages of a sugar market free of tariff duties through the annexation of Hawaii by the United States. This resulted in the negotiation in 1875 of a treaty of reciprocity giving United States exclusive trade rights, bringing prosperity to Hawaii through the American wealth that poured into the islands.

 

Violation

Greed

Injustice

 

Then in 1887, a group of American-born cabinet officials and advisors, together with an armed militia, forced King David Kalākaua at gunpoint with bayonet to the throat, to promulgate what became known as the Bayonet Constitution. This stripped the monarchy of its authority, empowering instead Americans who were not legal citizens of Hawai‘I, giving them full voting rights, while 75% of native Hawaiians were denied the right to vote in their own elections.

 

Imperialism

Violation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

 

The Americans then formed a Committee of Safety, and in1893 declared the monarchy ended, and overthrew it. The Hawaiians and Americans in the sugar industry encouraged the overthrow of the monarchy to serve their business needs. As most Hawaiians did not support the revolution, President Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii. The U.S. minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, established a provisional government, proclaiming the Hawaii to be a U.S. protectorate. Although the U.S. attempted to restore the monarchy, this was refused by the islands’ provisional government, who instead established a republic in 1894, placing as it’s president Sanford B. Dole. In 1898, annexation was achieved under the presidency of William McKinley.

 

Violation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

Denial of justice

Treachery

Conspiracy

Violation of Kanaka Maoli Self-Determination

Event

Generational Issue

 

On August 21, 1959, Ka Pae’aina Hawai’i officially became the 50th US State when US President Dwight Eisenhower declared that “the procedural requirements imposed by the Congress on the State of Hawai’i to entitle that state to admission into the Union have been complied with in all respects.”

 

Isolation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

 

Only recently has it been disclosed that the 1959 Statehood process may have been fraudulent. In 1946, Hawaii was placed on the UN List of Non-Self-Governing Territories, and under the terms of UN Charter, Chapter XI, Article 73, as a result of the forced annexation in 1898 by U.S.A., was eligible for decolonization, the U.S.A. being obliged to fulfill it’s, ‘sacred trust… to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the people concerned, their political, economic, social and educational advancement…and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions’.

 

Violation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

Treachery

Conspiracy

 

Aware of proposed changes to the decolonization process, the U.S.A. took steps to ensure that Hawaii and Alaska would become states of the Union, which was done without the consent of the Hawaiian people, and in violation of the stipulations of the charter.

 

Deception

Thievery

 

Promoted as an, ‘equal opportunity and autonomony’, a plebiscite with a single option ballot of immediate statehood was presented on 27th June 1959. In fact, UNGAR 742 (1953) had provided for two other options: independence, and free association, but the Hawaiian electorate was not informed of these. Only 16% of those permitted to vote were colonized Hawaiian residents; the rest included U.S.A. military personnel and citizens, whose vote was as predicted.

 

Deception

Violation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

 

These facts are contrary to the U.S.A. statement to the U.N. on 17th September 1959 that, ‘Alaska and Hawai’i had attained full measure of self-government as admitted states’, and resulted in the U.N. approval of Resolution 1469 on 12th December 1959 stating that, ‘the people of Alaska and Hawai’i have effectively exercised their right to self-determination and have freely chosen their present status’.

 

Violation

Greed

Betrayal

Injustice

Mythology

Event

Generational Issue

 

Each person had a patron god. Even thieves had their patron god. HM, p. 4

 

Idolatry
 

People were divided into strict classes as chiefs, priests, commoners, and slaves, holding prerogatives according to inherited rank down to their minutest subdivisions…   HM, p. 7

 

Oppression of the poor

Elitism

Pride

Lanai was the gods’ landing at Ku-moku.   The first gods who ruled our people came to Lanai.   HM, p.11

Curse on Lanai harbor and the land

Idolatry

 

Ku and Hina are invoked as great ancestral gods of heaven and earth who have general control over the fruitfulness of earth and the generations of mankind. Ku means “rising upright”, Hina means “leaning down”…morning belongs to Ku, the afternoon to Hina. HM, p. 12

 

False Worship

Curse on production of the land

Curse on time

 

Still others call upon the spirits of descendants and ancestors, praying toward the east to Hina-kua (back)…   HM, p. 12

 

Ancestor Worship
The universal character of Ku a god worshiped to produce good crops, good fishing, long life, and family and national prosperity. HM, p. 13

Curse on production of land

Curse on fishing

Premature death

Curse on national income

 

Night (po) was the period of the gods, day (ao) was that of mankind. HM, p.14

 

Curse on the God given cycles of the body
 

Ku-ka-ohia-laka is the god of the hula dance. HM, p. 16 Schools of dancing in Hawaii were organized under expert leaders and dedicated to gods of the hula, whose elaborate performances on the island of Hawaii were witnessed in the latter part of the eighteenth century. HM, p. 40 The whole Pele and Hi’iaka cycle of stories is rehearsed episodically in the hula dance. The hula songs are not composed by mortals but taught by the Pele spirits to worshipers of Pele. Those who learn the dances are supposed to be possessed by the spirit of the Pele, goddess of the dance. HM, p. 180

(NOTE: The Hula has been redeemed by the followers of Christ who use the dance as a worship to the Lord)

False worship in dance

Idolatry

 

Training in the hula does not include the whole art of sorcery but every hula master must know the prayers to ward off sorcery (pule pale) and each pupil learns such a prayer for his protection.   P. 180

 

Sorcery
 

There is a legend of a handsome chief named Kekoona who has kupua power and can turn himself into an eel three hundred feet long. HM p. 21 In the legend of Oro, one turns himself into a pig. HM, p. 37

 

Shape shifting (lycanthropy)
 

At the time of Cook’s discovery of the Hawaiian group, priests of the strictest religious followed the Ku ritual in which was observed a prolonged ritual involving the whole people as participants and demanding exorbitant offerings to the god in the shape of pigs, coconuts, redfish, white cloth and human victims. This was especially the practice in time of war.   HM, p. 26

Idolatry

Ungodly sacrifices

Curses on all of the items listed

 

A human sacrifice was offered as payment for the tree both at the spot where it was cut down and at the posthole where the image was set up.   HM, p. 26

 

Human sacrifice

Possible tie to Astroaph worship

 

The offering to Ku of a human victim or of an ulua fish whose eye was plucked out for Ka-hoali’i…   HM, p. 27

 

Human sacrifice

Curse against eyes

 

The original god (akua) was a stone (or gourd) about the size of two fists, bound about with sennit, and having at the top two feathers from the mythical bird called Hiva-oa, which were secured by prayer.   HM, p. 29

 

Idolatry
 

All war gods were ultimately regarded as gods of sorcery. HM, p.29

 

Sorcery
 

Ku-waha-ilo (Ku-maggot-mouth) was by tradition a man-eater and the god responsible for the introduction of human sacrifice.   HM, p. 29

 

Human sacrifice

Priests set up heiaus to pray for rain, abundant crops, or escape from sickness and trouble.     HM, p. 32

Curse on crops

Curse on Weather

Curses of infirmary

 

Kane, god of procreation, was worshiped as ancestor of chiefs and commoners.   HM, p. 42

 

Curse against fertility
 

The Hawaiian believed in three worlds: the upper heaven of the god, the lower heaven above the earth, and the earth itself as a garden for mankind… HM, p. 42

 

Curses affecting the dimensions (heavenly places)
 

A family altar called Pohaku-o-Kane (Stone of Kane) was set up to Kane in the shape of a single conical stone from a foot to eight feet in height, plain or with slight carving, and planted about with ti plant, where members of a family went to pray to their aumakua and ask for forgiveness for the broken tapu to which they ascribed any trouble that had come upon them.   p. 46

 

Idolatry

False worship

 

Each family worshiped its own Kane or aumakua. HM, p.47

Curse tied to the worship of each aumakua
 

There were thousands and thousands of names to fit the work done, but all referring to one god….and only one place to offer food, the stone of Kane…HM, p. 47

 

Curses against all types of work done
 

There was a sacrifice done with an eyeball. Anyone might be selected as a victim and his eyes gouged out and swallowed in a cup of awa.   Maui was appeased with the eyes of the abductor offered to him in a cup of awa before his injured feelings are pacified. HM, p. 50

 

Curse against eyes

Manipulation and control

Cannabalism

 

Chanted prayers to the gods were an important part, perhaps the important part, of temple worship. HM, p. 51

 

Ungodly chanting
 

A fisher boy comes daily to a little hut he has erected for his god and lays a bit of fish there saying, “O gods, here is a bit of fish for you.” Fish altars are set up to Kane-ko’a along streams to increase the catch of oopu fish.   HM, p63

 

Curse on fishing

Idolatry

 

In myth Kane and Kanaloa are represented as gods living in the bodies of men in an earthly paradise situated in a floating cloudland or other sacred and remote spot where they drink awa and are fed from a garden patch of never-failing growth. HM, p 67

 

Demon possession
 

Nothing is more characteristic of Hawaiian religion than the constantly increasing multiplicity of gods and the diversity of forms which their worship took. There were an infinite number of subordinate gods descended upon the family line of one or another of the major deities and worshiped by the particular families or those who pursued special occupations. Below the four great goods were fifty lesser gods (some say forty, others an indeterminate number), each named after some attribute of the god appropriate to the special department over which he presided. HM, p. 81

 

Idolatry

False worship

 

Stones in general have a potential power, Kane-poha (ku)-ka’a (Rolling stone Kane) is the subordinate Kane good who presides over stones….and was invoked by warriors to bless their weapons and make them “strong as rocks” and by farmers to bless their fields. “There is life in the stone and death in the stone” because stones are used as missiles to kill and as ovens in cooking. Chiefs and priests worshiped these rocks (the columnar male and porous or split female) and poured awa over them as representatives of the god. Stones are often worshiped as fish gods.   HM, p. 88-90

 

Curse against the land

Curse against fishing

Idolatry (libations)

Infertility

Heart of stone

 

All life other than human springs from the gods since it is out of control of man. It is therefore alive with spirit force. HM, p. 93

 

Animism
 

Coconut groves are among “those things on earth which are worshiped.” HM, p. 95

Curse against coconuts

Groves/altars bring death (Deut.16:21, Jer.17:2-4)

 

Sorcery, although by no means universally practiced, had become one of the strongest forces in shaping the life and character of the Hawaiian people and in determining the careers of their leaders. Sorcery began when these possessing spirits were sent abroad to do injury to another. Molokai. That island became a center for sorcery of all kinds. Molokai sorcery had more mana (power) than any other. Sorcery was taught in dreams. All these Molokai aumakua were descendants of the goddess Pahulu.   HM, p. 105-108

 

Sorcery

Witchcraft

 

The herb doctor (kahuna-lapaau-laau) studied the properties of healing herbs to combat sickness. Tradition combined practical knowledge of the medicinal effect of herbs with the priestly office.   HM, p.116

 

Ungodly use of the gift of healing

Curses against herbs

 

Most popular of all family guardians among a fishing people are shark aumakua. The manner of offering a corpse to become a shark is described in detail by Kamakau, together with the offerings required to pay the officiating kahuna and to feed the shark god; the ceremony at the offering; the appearance of the aumakuna god or gods for its reception; and the gradual transformation of the body until the kahuna is able to point out to the awe-struck family the actual markings on the body of the shark singled out for worship, corresponding to the clothing in which the body of their beloved had been wrapped. Such a shark aumakua became the family pet. It was fed daily and was believed to drive food into the net, save the fisherman from death if canoe capsized, and in other ways ward off danger. Like all these protecting guardians it had its evil uses as a fetcher to kill an enemy, but it must be remembered that this purpose was recognized as evil and that before Christianity came in and the skepticism of the whites refused to credit such superstition, the ruling chiefs came down with a heavy hand upon the practice of sorcery. On the whole the relation of a fisherman’s family to it shark aumakua was a friendly and intimate one and the fact of the tangible presence of the pet robbed it of horror. There is scarcely a Hawaiian family of the old type who cannot claim today some such aumakua known by name to the whole community. HM p. 128

 

Curse against fishing.

Shape shifting

False worship

False protection resulting in permission for demonic attack.

Superstition

 

The passing of the soul of the dead into the shark as its commonest incarnation; the transformation of a living person into a shark; and the “exchange of souls between man and shark,” as Foox puts it, in which a shark becomes a man’s familiar and acts for the man. A shark-man’s power passes to his son, who initiated at birth by the father crooking his arm like a shark’s fin and putting the child under his arm. The child and his shark receive the same name.   HM, p. 131. Many local legends are told of shark-men, always to be known by the mark of a shark’s mouth upon the back, who can change form from man to shark and who for a long time go undetected until it is noticed that an apparently disinterested warning to swimmers is always followed by a fatal attack by a man-eating shark. HM, p. 140

 

Reincarnation

Shape shifting

 

Women were supposed to be visited in a dream by aumakua spirits who wished to have a child by them. HM,   p. 135

 

Incubus and succubus
 

For central Polynesia and westward the number eight has special significance in sacred matters. HM, p. 209

 

Numerology
 

The god nature is likely to be derived from some animal ancestor whose spirit enters into the child at birth. p.403

 

Taking on of animal spirits (really demons)